- The ‘snap together’ vertical connection of DCS modules enables forms to be erected at the rate of 20m2 / man / hour, even by non skilled labour.
- 13 Kg for each 3m long panels, lightweight, easier and faster to handle.
- Reduces the number of trades normally required for walls and columns.
- Eliminates the need for masonry trades.
- Eliminates the requirement for wall bracing for walls unrestrained up to 5m high when used together with conventional formed decks.
- DCS significantly reduces steel reinforcement installation time. DCS’s crack inducers and improved curing by polymer encapsulation eliminates the need for crack control reinforcement normally required for concrete walls. As a result, majority of Dincel-Walls are either unreinforced or consist of only vertical reinforcement. This facility, apart from cost, significantly reduces time required for reinforcement installation into Dincel-forms.
- Concrete formworkers remain on site until the building shell is completed.
- The factory installed conduits for plumbing and electrical wiring, incorporated into DCS modules, removes services trades from the construction program’s critical path.
- The dimensionally accurate forms for window and door penetrations enables windows and doors to be ordered with confidence during the planning stage. Windows can be installed after external and internal finishes have been applied, from the interior of the building, without the use of scaffolding.
- DCS eliminates floor slab edge boards.
- Reinforcement of the floor slabs with DCS requires significantly less quantity, hence reinforcement mesh can be used which significantly reduces the time of floor slab reinforcement installation.
- DCS is not affected by wet weather conditions.
- DCS does not require waterproofing (Download - Dincel Wall Waterproofing Warranty), hence the time required for the waterproofing as in the case of conventional basement walls.
- The waterproof nature of Dincel-Walls eliminates the time required for the additional excavation behind the basement perimeter walls for waterproofing purposes.
- DCS eliminates conventional footings hence the time required with detailed excavation, reinforcement placement and cleaning of the reinforced trenches during wet weather conditions. DCS ensures that the footing phase of construction is finalised as quick as possible.
- Significantly reduces the time possibly lost at construction sites due to accidents, access and cranage related issues.
- All of the above benefits equate to fewer workers and amenities on site, which means less time and lower cost.
Is there a cost and time benefit if DCS is installed by the floor formworkers rather than a by a specialised walling trade dealing with the walls only?
- The builder/developer deals with one only trade who is responsible for walls, columns and floor slabs.
- The utilisation of the floor slab formworkers increases the number of workers available for installation and reduces the installation costs.
- The formworkers utilise the slab deck for the installation and bracing of the wall forms, thus eliminating the need for additional bracing. This achieves safer, faster construction without the need to co-ordinate and schedule wall construction trades.
- Plumbing, electrical services and window installation can be carried out at any stage without interrupting the formworking trade. In this way, the formworker finishes the shell of the building without leaving the construction site. This achieves very significant time savings.
- DCS does not require skilled labour. Installation at the rate of 20m2/man/hour for straight walls can be achieved.
- The above characteristics elevate the formworking trade to the most utilised on the construction site which achieves better time management and cash flow for their business also.
- Significantly lower cost in comparison to conventional systems.
- The best walling system for below ground conditions producing waterproof walls with factory finished waterproof outer surfaces.
- Lighter (13 kg/m2), no cranage required, ideal for constructions with access difficulties.
- Easier and faster to install (20 m2/man/hour) even by non-skilled labour.
- Non-brittle, can withstand significant construction abuse. DCS rigid forms minimise or eliminate bracing and eliminate concrete blow-outs. DCS is not affected by wet weather conditions.
- There is no size or scale limitation with DCS. Forms are custom manufactured to required length.
- Low maintenance with no cracks or water damage, no rusting and no concrete cancer.
- Incorporates hollow conduits for service reticulation and for easy plasterboard screw fixing. Therefore no wall chasing, no battening, no wastage and no cleaning costs.
- Best structural solution to minimise the cost of floor slabs, 60% less steel and 25% less concrete.
- Can be used as deep beams and footings to eliminate costly transfer structures and conventional footings.
- Eliminates the cost of conventional waterproofing.
- Make contact with a DCS representative so you can become familiar with the system.
- Where possible, plan your project to work with DCS’s module dimensions (3 or 18 modules per lineal metre). Where necessary DCS can be integrated with conventional formwork to achieve dimensions not achievable with standard DCS forms.
- Shop drawings can be prepared by DCS for your specific project application following acceptance of DCS quotation and placement of order.
- Dimension wall lengths to suit DCS modules which will achieve significant cost savings.
- Use DCS to eliminate conventional edge formworking and safety hand-railing.
- Utilise concrete floor slab formworkers to install the DCS system. This results in one trade having responsibility for the entire building shell. Installation of DCS from, and attachment to floor forms, significantly reduces bracing and enable the walls to be filled with concrete at the same time as pouring the floor slab. This achieves time and cost savings due to retaining the concrete workers on site until the structure is completed. This is beneficial and desirable for the formworkers and the builder.
- Utilise DCS for water proof basement walls with factory produced water proof finish.
Why is DCS acoustically better than conventional discontinuous party walls consisting of stud walls?
- The quality of pipe fixing to avoid water hammering is not reliant on the workmanship of the installer.
- The system provides better insulation for heat loss in hot water pipes. This ensures significant energy saved for water heating and eliminates water wastage due to availability of hot water in a shorter time.
- Additional water pipes or power/communication cables can be installed even after the construction of an existing building utilising DCS. The overall wall thickness is significantly reduced.
- Water hammer is significantly reduced or eliminated on both sides of the party wall.
- Unlike copper pipes, cross linked polyethylene pipes do not need maintenance since there is no build-up of water impurities in the pipes. This eliminates the need to install water in accessible spaces like stud walls.
- It is a cheaper and faster way to build in comparison to other alternatives.
Does 150mm concrete party walls with daub glue fixed plasterboard finishing comply with the building code of Australia (BCA)?
A 150mm concrete party wall with plasterboard cladding can no longer be treated under the “deemed to satisfy” conditions. Plasterboard attached to concrete faces with daub glue results in resonance in the plasterboard (i.e. drum effect) causing significant transmission loss. This eliminates the possibility of a 150mm concrete wall complying with the BCA.
BCA, Specification 5.2, Table 2 shows a 150mm concrete wall with plasterboard on 28mm furring channels which DOES NOT COMPLY. Daub glue provides up to 2mm to 4mm gaps between the wall and plasterboard surfaces in lieu of the 28mm gap of furring channels. Resonance of plasterboards increases when the gap between the wall and plasterboard gets smaller hence increases transmission loss. As a result, a 150mm concrete wall with daub glued plasterboard DOES NOT COMPLY WITH THE BCA.
When vertical re-bar is required, its placement is simple and straightforward. Dincel Reo-Clip ensures that the vertical bars can be placed in a fixed position at the centre and/or either faces of the 200mm Dincel Profile.
Do I get uplift at the base of DCS wall forms during concrete pouring? And do i need to fix the bases of the wall forms to the wall bottom tracks?
In addition, the round, horizontally aligned web holes of the vertically placed DCS modules prevent the free fall of coarse aggregate, hence eliminating concrete segregation. The same phenomenon, commonly called elephant-trunk action, pushes the forms down against the potential uplift caused by the wet concrete mix.
For the above reasons no physical connection is required between the bottom tracks and the wall forms. However, in order to prevent the forms from being displaced by wind or accidental disturbance by impact, it is recommended that the forms should be connected to the bottom guide tracks by gluing and/or screwing if they are to be left overnight prior to concrete pouring.
- The next day – after pouring of the in-situ foundations or slabs
- Achievement of necessary concrete wall strength is required by the design engineer prior to the installation of precast flooring
Is DCS more advantageous to use than a frame structure consisting of slab-columns with infill walls in multi level residential construction?
- Conventional Column-slab frame structures generally consist of non-load bearing façade, party, corridor and partition walls with the following disadvantages:
- Non-load bearing walls provide additional loads to carry at each floor level resulting in more expensive floor slabs.
- More stringent structural/engineering serviceability requirements (deflection, shrinkage and thermal movement) associated with non-homogeneous infill wall material use, resulting in more expensive floor slabs.
- Columns as structural load carrying members normally result in higher load concentrations on the transfer floor slab, hence thicker and costlier transfer slabs.
- Internal works cannot start until at least the perimeter building walls and glazing are in place for trades to work.
- The infill façade, party and corridor walls of frame structures are costlier and take more time to build than DCS.
- More trades and many different materials result in the various trades being dependent upon each other and all trades being on the critical path. Increased numbers of workers present at any given time in comparison to DCS.
- CS is an advanced development of the column-slab frame structure. The only difference is that all or some façade, party and corridor walls are employed as load bearing elements. Internal partition walls of sole occupancy units are the only lightweight walls. Blade columns are linked to each other to form walls rather than individual structural load carrying elements. The advantage of DCS in comparison to a conventional frame structure can be summarised as follows:
- DCS walling can be installed much faster than conventional formed columns due to extremely simple and quick installation.
- DCS walls are cheaper to build, and being solid have great market appeal.
- DCS walls support slabs rather than being supported by slabs, thus resulting in lower cost floor slabs.
- The walls and slabs are all made from the same material, i.e. concrete. This homogeneity achieves similar behaviour of both slabs and walls. The polymer covered walls are of a non-brittle material, hence less stringent serviceability requirements, i.e. cheaper floor slabs.
- Reinforcement of the floor slabs with DCS requires significantly less time and less steel.
- DCS walls can be employed as deep beams thus resulting in substantially cheaper transfer slabs than in conventional frame systems.
- DCS offers waterproof and ready finished basement walls.
- DCS walls can be used as footings to eliminate conventional strip/pad footings.
- DCS walls constructed with concrete slabs require one trade only. The concreting trade can complete the entire building shell without leaving the construction site and the water pipes, power/communication cables etc can be installed at any time without interfering with the concrete trades. The DCS system also allows pre-ordering of the windows prior to construction. Windows can then be installed from the interior of the building which provides an additional benefit in terms of faster, safer construction.
- DCS requires fewer workers, less site amenities, and more importantly eliminates a significant number of dependent trades, taking them off the critical path.
Where decorative finishes are not required, for example in basement walls, fire stair walls, lift shafts, warehouse and factory walls, the factory finished faces can be left exposed.
U.V. Degradation in PVC occurs when energy from the U.V. radiation causes excitation of the molecular bonds in plastic. The resulting reaction occurs only on the exposed surface of PVC and penetrates the material less than 0.025mm. Refer to PVC Pipe Design & Installation - American Water Works Association - 2002 page 7.
The common effects of direct sunlight for unprotected rigid PVC polymers are:
- Loss of gloss, progression to chalking and discolouration (yellowing). This only affects the aesthetic appearance. Dincel-Wall avoids this issue, if yellowing is a concern, by having paint/render finishes on building walls subject to direct sunlight. If no paint protection or additional solar radiation reflectants are provided, loss of gloss, discolouration, and dehydro-dechlorination occurs leading to surface crazing of only a few micron thickness in which the bulk of the material thickness is unaffected.
- Brittle type of fracture can occur. The issue of loss of impact strength and brittleness, hence fracture under stress concentration can occur after a significantly long period of time which is normally a concern for the service life of water pipes, water tanks, windows etc. These profiles or empty shells normally rely on strength of the polymer itself. However, the strength of the Dincel-Wall against stress concentrations such as change in the water pressure in the case of pipes, tanks or local impact is absorbed by the concrete infill of Dincel-Wall. Therefore, the issue of brittleness, hence loss of impact strength of PVC subject to direct sunlight, if and when it occurs, is not an issue for serviceability of Dincel-Wall.
- Dincel-polymer which is a PVC based product uses titanium dioxide (Ti02) pigments where it acts as a U.V. absorber to reduce the aesthetics appearance change that may occur at the product surface due to U.V. degradation.
- Ti02 is used as white food colouring and often used to whiten skimmed milk.
- It is used in ice creams, toothpastes, medicines, cosmetics and skin care products.
- It is used in almost every commonly available sunscreen especially for infants and sensitive skins to block U.V. light.
- There is no evidence of health hazards observed in relation to Ti02, even with people subject to high Ti02 concentrations during the production and packing processes (Refer to Wikipedia).
- DCS polymer consists of non-toxic, heavy metal free stabilisers, plasticiser free inert materials including Ti02 as approved by Work Safe Australia standards and is better than other food and potable water grade PVC products.
The most common internal finishes consist of plasterboard sheet and paint. The internal and external walls can have the desired texture and colour applied paint/polymer render finishes.
For further information Download – Finishes
- The surface is cleaned from dirt, grease, or concrete spillage.
- A coat of surface etching primer is applied to prepare the base for better bonding of levelling filler.
- The etched surface receives a trowelled-on coat of filler component which consists of polymer compound, flexible enough to absorb movements of the base surface. The purpose of the filler is to fill the joints between profiles and level the surface appearance.
- The final finishing coat may consist of either trowel-on, pre-coloured, desired texture finish or two coats of desired paint. Download – Paint/Render Wall Finishes.
The Ashby chart (University of Cambridge, U.K.) shows that for PVC the maximum service temperature is about 65°C. Rigid PVC offers heat deflection temperature, where softening starts to occur, at 70°C temperature or vicat softening temperature at 75°C.
Dincel-polymer which is a significantly modified version of common rigid PVC shows, under fire tests by CSIRO Australia, displays excellent heat release properties which are better than common rigid PVC and even plasterboard.This clearly indicates that the Dincel-polymer service temperature will exhibit a better service temperature than 65°C at the same strength level.However, irrespective of this fact the reader must remember that Dincel-Wall consists of concrete infill.The strength of Dincel-form is only required at the time of concrete pouring to hold the wet concrete pressure.Dincel-Wall, being a formwork, only requires serviceability performance at the time of concrete pouring.It is not an allowed practice of the construction industry to pour concrete at an ambient temperature of 65°C in the first place.It is therefore not a concern for Dincel-Wall if the ambient temperature reaches 70°C after concrete infilling.
The concrete industry/engineers need to be aware that the concrete’s hydration temperature needs to be considered when using high strength concrete in excess of 65 Mpa (28 days) concrete.The concrete’s hydration temperature is based on many factors including ambient temperature at the time of concrete pouring, plastic concrete’s temperature, water/cement ratio, cement/aggregates size and type and many other factors. Dincel Walls have already been used successfully incorporating 80 Mpa concrete at 28 days strength. Contact your concrete supplier to confirm appropriate mix design for strength exceeding 28 days concrete compressive strength of 65 Mpa.
As a common practice the concrete mix design shall be organised in a way that the hydration temperature never exceeds 65°C. Otherwise concrete above 65°C displays deleterious effects.
When 65 Mpa concrete is prepared and poured under Australian Standards, it is a rare possibility for the concrete's hydration temperature to exceed 40°C or even 50°C if the thickness of the wall is limited to 200mm as in the case of Dincel-Wall.
DCS has already used 80 Mpa concrete strength in year 2011 for a 27 storey building in Melbourne, Australia. Download - Hickory Testimonial If the question is, can Dincel-Wall be used for daily ambient temperatures reaching up to 70°C, then the answer in the case of Dincel-Wall would be a definite yes as the concrete infill has already set and hardened.
However, if the question is that if dark finishing colours subject to sunlight can be used refer to the following Q11 and Q12.
Unlike conventional concrete, DCS provides a permanent, non-brittle, high tensile capacity permanent formwork which provides the perfect curing environment hence the concrete achieves additional crack resistance performance. In addition to this, DCS also provides internal crack inducers at maximum 125mm centres within the forms which force the concrete to have approximately 0.01mm width cracks at each crack inducer.
The presence of Dincel crack inducers distribute the contraction movements along the length of the wall and hence minimises the surface movement for the paint render application. The paint/render used with DCS should possess adequate elasticity to handle the maximum movement ((70-12) x 10-6 x 40°C x 333mm = 0.8mm) that could occur at each DCS panel. Each DCS panel joint has been designed to accomodate 1.5mm movement without the presence of render finishes. However, the possibility of having 40°C temperature variation will be an extreme rarity in Australian conditions. Unless dark colour render/paints are used without sun-ray reflectors, the (88°C - 20°C) = 68°C variation can be experienced on a western wall on a summer day, in which case the elasticity of the paint/render for crack avoidance purposes needs to be considered. The elasticity of paint/render needs to be 0.8mm/1.5mm = 52% at 40°C variation. This would be approximately 26% at normal conditions where the temperature variation is only 20°C.
Render applied to Dincel Wall consisting of 100% Acrylic render with polystyrene balls as an aggragate provides 20% elasticity in accordance with the manufacturer. It is therefore essential to accommodate:
- Sun-ray reflectors,
- Joints at maximum 5m centres,
- Minimum 10mm thickness of render for insulation purposes
Dincel Walls without any render/paint finish on it for up to 140m length has been used succesfully. Dincel crack inducers and the joint at each Dincel panel provides adequate articulation for the base Dincel Wall of 140m long without having conventional contraction or expansion joint.
The issue of render/paint performance is a complex matter. Download - Finishes for further explanation.
Will extreme temperature differences cause bulging and vertical ridges of concrete filled DCS surfaces?
It is common to see 1 or 2mm vertical ridges at Dincel panel joints for 3 metre high concrete Dincel Wall. These vertical ridges may grow further due to the following reasons;
- The use of water/cement ratio in excess of 0.5. Do not use conventional block mix which comes with 230mm slump and more importantly w/c = 0.70 to 0.90. Do not allow adding of water to concrete mix delivered to site.
- Not blocking the top of Dincel Wall after concrete pouring. High relative humidity and prolonged rainy periods increase water content in Dincel Wall. It should be remembered that Dincel is a waterproof container particularly after receiving the polymer render paint finishes.
- The use of dark colours increases the wall surface temperature significantly. If the Dincel Wall concrete has high moisture content which moves towards to the warmer face hence causing increased movement at the Dincel panel joint which may cause cracking if the render does not have enough elasticity. This can be avoided by having joints and controlling the moisture content within the wall. For further information Download - Dincel Solution for Render Cracking
Also, plasterboard can be directly screwed at Dincel panel joints.
Light weight wall cladding such as timber, aluminium, metal claddings or f.c. siding may be glued and mechanically screwed to in-built channels/conduits.
Stone or brick can be attached to DCS concrete walls with ties which are mechanically fixed before or after the concrete filling of the forms.
- Fill and level the damaged part with two part resin filler which is used in the car and boat industries, sand the dried surface.
- Apply a coat of etching primer between the joints of the damaged DCS panel.
- Apply one or two coats of paint with matching DCS colour to the repaired panel.
Concerns are raised over the usage of common rigid PVC because it contains plasticisers and heavy metal stabilisers during the manufacturing process. However, DCS does not use plasticisers or heavy metal stabilisers but rather organic stabilisers.
DCS offers better fire and smoke properties in comparison to common rigid PVC.
All manufacturing waste, including extrusion rejects, off-cuts or cored web holes are currently recycled 100% by DCS’s superior manufacturing technology.
DCS provides any custom length between profile lengths of 1,800mm and 7,950mm which significantly minimises the need for cutting and creating construction site wastage. The inbuilt service spacers eliminate wall chasings for power, communication cables and water reticulation pipes which further minimises construction site wastage. The Dincel material is specially formulated and does not consist of heavy metal stabilisers and plasticisers, and as a result Dincel can only re-possess its own production. The construction site wastage generated during installation prior to concreting creates uncontaminated readily useable material for DCS. Alternatively, any of the Dincel product mix that cannot be re-processed, the waste can be sent to third parties for recycling which can be used by the pipe industry as per current practice.
End Of Life
Dincel offers 100 years life to concrete walls. (Download) FAQ Answer No: 6 – Life/Sustainability. Dincel’s innovation allows the majority of walls to use unreinforced or vertical steel bars only without horizontal bars (as certified by the University of New South Wales). This allows the recycling of vertical steel bars, concrete infill and Dincel’s polymer formwork at the end of building life by simply crushing the Dincel Wall. The absence of steel bars in the secondary direction allows easy separation of steel bars from the concrete infill.
What advantages does DCS offer with respect to alternative building materials for full life cycle assessments?
This long, maintenance-free service life is now recognised by a recently released study of environmental life-cycle analyses (LCAs) of vinyl (i.e. common PVC). The study conducted for the European Commission is based on a review of more than 200 LCAs with a focus on about 30 LCA’s that met ISO standards and compared products on an application basis.
The European Commission (EC) conducting this study found that vinyl can offer environmental benefits equal to or better than those of other materials in many applications. As a result the study challenges material de-selection policies by pointing out that the performance of a product using a durable, lasting material can outweigh concerns about the production of the material.
The assumption is that life cycle analyses should be based on application rather than material levels, since the life-cycle impacts of a material will vary according to the products in which the material is used. This is especially true with PVC pipe and fittings, since many PVC piping materials are still in use more than 50 years after their installation, out-lasting their metallic counterparts by many years.
Lower embodied energy of the PVC-Concrete polymer matrix system places a lower demand on our non-renewable resources, requiring less energy inputs and produces less carbon dioxide emission.
The following is an explanation why 100 years of life can be adopted when DCS is used;
The best studied and experienced product is rigid PVC pipe. The life expectancy of buried pipe is expected to have more than 100 plus years under pressure. When pipes are buried under ground, no chemical degradation is expected to take place. For this reason, the durability of PVC material in buried pipes is expected to be very long (may be even more than 1000 years, Ref: Janson, Lars Eric 1996 “Plastic pipes – how long they can last?” KP Council November 1996).
Studies show that plastics undergo a change in morphology with time, independent of exposure conditions, such that the “free volume” in the matrix reduces with an increasing number of cross-links between molecules. This results in changes in mechanical properties consisting: increase in tensile strength, yield stress and moduli. In general, these changes appear to be beneficial. However, the response of the material at high stress levels is altered in that local yielding at stress concentrators is inhibited, and strain capability of the article is decreased (e.g. pressure pipes). A brittle type of fracture is more likely to occur and a general reduction in impact resistance may be observed.
Real experience in Germany has shown that buried PVC pressure pipes dug up after 60 years of active use were proven to be fit for purpose when analysed and likely to have a further life expectancy of 50 years. (Reference 60 Jahre Erfahrungen mit Rohrleitungen aus Weichmachfreiem PVC, 1995, KRV).
Studies in the Netherlands have examined several potential degradation processes for PVC pipes and carried out tests on pipes up to 45 years old. These studies also concluded that the life of PVC drinking water systems could exceed 100 years. (Reference ‘Long Term Performance of Existing PVC Water Distribution Systems’ by A. Boersma and J Breen, 9th International PVC Conference, Brighton, 26-28th April 2005, pp 307-305).
The website http://matse1.matse.illinois.edu/concrete/concrete.doc confirms that concrete life span is 50,000 years under perfect conditions. This statement is particularly relevant to concrete within Dincel-Wall which is protected against reinforcing steel corrosion and against chemical attacks to the concrete itself, including atmospheric, ground water, acidic and salt attacks.
Dincel-Walls do not incorporate horizontal reinforcement across the adjacent module joints. Therefore, corrosion of the vertical bars in the absence of horizontal bars of Dincel-Wall is not a possibility provided adequate measures are taken for corrosion protection of vertical bars at the wall-floor junctions.
Rigid PVC offers good resistance to acids, alkaline, oils, many corrosive inorganic chemicals, oxygen, ozone, water, alcohol, aliphatic hydrocarbons and detergent solutions. However, rigid PVC is attacked by ketones; some grades are swollen or attacked by chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, some aromatic ethers and amines and nitro-compounds. The chemicals that can attack PVC are normally man-made; the ones available in nature below 20°C in temperature are not in concentrations to affect rigid PVC. This qualifies rigid PVC under normal environmental conditions as an environmentally indestructible polymer.
It is known that brittle fracture of the PVC pipes can occur because of stress concentrations such as high water pressure within pipes or local impact. Pipe is an empty shell carrying high pressure water. Therefore, the abovementioned fracture due to the brittleness of the material would not be relevant if the same pipe profile is filled with concrete to absorb stress concentrations such as local impact as in the case of Dincel-Wall.
It is an obvious fact from the testings performed by the industry that the life of PVC pipes is a minimum of 100 years because they are subjected to cyclic water pressure loading as aged material can crack due to brittleness. However, this does not mean that the material itself will degrade or dissolve. The cracked pipe will remain in position without degradation for hundreds of years. The analogy for Dincel-Wall is no different than the above. Dincel-Wall is not subjected to cyclic loadings such as water pipes, hence in time the brittleness, if any, is not an issue since polymer material will not dissolve within 100 years as stated by Jansen, Lars Eric 1996.
Dincel-Wall performance including resistance to chemicals and a unique crack inducing mechanism eliminating the use of horizontal reinforcement, hence corrosion of steel reinforcement and impact strength to aged polymer provided by concrete infill offers a very long life to Dincel-Wall. Dincel-Wall, consisting of concrete infill and a protective permanent polymer encapsulation, offers perfect protection to reinforced concrete walls. Basement walls or above ground building walls can then be said conservatively to have a life span in excess of 100 years (not 50,000 years, not 1,000 years as mentioned above).
DCS being plasticiser free and heavy metal stabiliser free represents superior environmental benefits which has a VOC rating tested by CETEC-Australia of 50 times better than the Australian – Green Star rating threshold. Download – Indoor Air Quality, Condensation, Mould and Mildew for CETEC certificate.
Patrick Moore has been an environmental scientist for more than 30 years. A founder of Greenpeace and founder and current director of Green Spirit, Moore is now focusing his energies on developing a rational, logical, science-based approach to decisions we make about moving to a more sustainable civilisation and society.
According to Moore, “when you look at PVC and the positive uses it has in our society, chlorinated water in a PVC pipe is about the safest way you can deliver water to the public.”
The chlorine or VCM production in Australia is no longer a concern. This is because the advanced Australian manufacturing technology and the “best performance criteria” are adopted by the industry. As a result, the Green Building Council of Australia has announced on 15th January 2010 that using PVC no longer receives negative credit.
The Dincel polymer material, in addition to the “best performance criteria” does not include any plasticizers or heavy metal stabilisers. This makes Dincel polymer better than the best performance criteria.
- Significantly reduces building time and cost to offer improved building/housing affordability with increased workplace safety.
- Reduction of total building construction costs between 10% to 15%, contributes to economic and social well being of the country.
- Significantly reduces timber use and manufacture of raw materials thereby reducing energy use, carbon dioxide production, waste generation and maintenance issues.
- The DCS polymer-concrete matrix contains lower embodied energy consumption when compared to alternative construction systems which normally consist of increased quantities of cement and reinforcement usage.
- Significantly increases fire safety and building life span even for very harsh environmental conditions. Total recyclability.
- DCS’s water conservation and management system reduces flood related problems, cost and maintenance of public stormwater infrastructure, protects trees and fauna. Can achieve between 40%, and 90% water self sufficiency and reduce reliance on town water supply, resulting in access to lower cost land, otherwise not available because of water scarcity.
- DCS offers highly cost effective water retaining tanks and silos for grain storage. The life of stored grain can be significantly increased.
Air tight means no big flows of air escaping through the holes leading to heat loss by mass transfer. The air moves out of the building carrying the heat with it. If the building is not air tight, it cannot be considered as energy efficient.
Breathable means that water vapour can diffuse through the wall.
The water vapour occurs from the following sources:
- The internal and external vapour sources after the building’s completion and during the building’s occupancy phase
- Vapour source during construction phase.
The external water vapour source after the building’s completion and during the building’s occupancy phase is the rainwater and moisture available in the outdoor environment. The outer skin of the building should be air tight and conventionally required to be vapour permeable. The reason for this is that all conventional building materials such as brick, block masonry, fibre-cement sheets, timber and even concrete are porous. These porous materials, through their hygroscopic and capillary properties, absorb the moisture from the outdoor environment unless their external surface is covered by membrane systems which are not commonly used because they are expensive and require ongoing maintenance. The majority of commercial paints cannot stop the vapour migration into the wall. In addition to the porous nature of conventional wall materials, they crack and hence often require having joints to minimise the cracking. The penetration of the vapour is therefore unavoidable through the joints, cracks and porous nature of the wall material. As this is the case; what comes into the wall must go out. This is the reason why porous walls are required to be breathable. Otherwise material decay and biological developments (mould, mildew, etc.) will occur. The cavity wall construction is therefore commonly adopted throughout the world in association with porous wall materials to capture the rainwater/moisture within the cavity so the moisture penetration does not extend inside of the façade wall. Naturally cavities must have proper weep and ventilation holes and flashings to let the rainwater and moisture out. The properly ventilated cavity will assist in expelling the moisture absorbed by the external skin.
The water vapour source during construction is usually overlooked, even by many building experts. It is a known fact that most of the condensation related problems occur during the first 12 months of the building’s completion. The main reason for these porous materials during the construction phase is that they have no protection on them to avoid the absorption of rainwater and air humidity. In addition to this, concrete floors and concrete walls consist of 11% water content which takes much more than 12 months to dry. These are the contributing vapour sources during the construction phase. It is clear that all building walls should have Dincel polymer protection at the beginning of the construction phase; otherwise the walls will absorb additional moisture and rainwater in addition to 11% water content that already exists within the concrete walls. The applied membrane systems and commercial paint/render’s life will be questionable if applied on reasonably saturated walls with moisture content in excess of 15%. These applied finishes including membranes are normally placed on the exterior face of façade walls. This will in fact cause a worse problem in single skin walls (especially concrete) without cavity construction since the majority of moisture absorbed in the wall will tend to diffuse at the interior building’s face.
The commercial acrylic paint/render systems are not necessarily permeable; hence the diffusion of water vapour usually results in paint failure. Therefore, all porous walls must have breathable applied finishes for the above explained reasons. For further information refer download – Wall Comparisons especially for concrete walls with permanent formwork having fibre-cement sheets.
The availability of Dincel-Wall changes the abovementioned convention since Dincel-Wall does not allow any moisture or rainwater to penetrate through the wall.
Dincel-Wall offers a completely waterproof, airtight, joint and crack free wall with the inbuilt vapour barrier on both faces simultaneously. (The building codes around the world require a vapour barrier on the warm face of the wall).
Dincel-Wall has been tested by the CSIRO – Australia and confirmed as:
- Waterproof even at its joints under 6m of head of water pressure.
- Dincel’s polymer vapour transmission rate is 180 times better than the standard threshold for common membrane systems.
Dincel-Wall eliminates the reason for a breathable wall since the internal mechanical and/or natural cross ventilation are mandatory and the porosity, wall crackings and joints are not desirable and most commonly causes problems such as material deterioration, condensation, mould/mildew and sick building syndrome.
Refer to the following Dincel documents for a recommended wall construction for a variety of climate conditions.
Download – Part 2 – Energy Efficiency for Building Operational Use Download – Indoor Air Quality, Condensation, Mould and Mildew
A comprehensive answer to this question is also given in (FAQ, Answer No: 11 – Breathable Wall) and download – Indoor Air Quality, Condensation, Mould and Mildew.
As explained in the above documents, it is important to understand the source of moisture which must be in present for condensation to occur:
- Dincel prevents any moisture from the exterior environment or moisture available within the wet concrete mix entering into the interior face of Dincel (i.e. Dincel is waterproof and has an extremely low vapour transmission rate). This source of moisture is unavoidable with all conventional wall materials due to their porous nature, cracks, joints, etc.
- The second source of moisture comes from the building’s use (bathroom, laundry, kitchen and the building occupants breathing) in which the majority of excess moisture can only be removed by mechanical ventilation (cross ventilation will not be used in cold winter conditions). It will not be possible to remove all moisture from the internal building’s use by mechanical ventilation at any given time. This is the reason why, especially the internal wall face should be protected by insulation in cold winter conditions to prevent moist air from getting in contact with the cold wall’s surface.
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